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In their phasic mode DA neurons sharply increase or decrease their firing rates for — milliseconds, causing large changes in DA concentrations in downstream structures lasting for several seconds Schultz, ; Schultz, To remedy this dilemma, in the final part of this review we propose a new hypothesis to explain the presence of multiple types of DA neurons, the nature of their neural signals, and their integration into distinct brain networks for motivational control. In the first part of this review we will introduce the conventional theory of phasic DA reward signals and will review recent advances in understanding their nature and their control over neural processing and behavior. As a result, these phasic DA reward signals have taken on a prominent role in theories about the functions of cortical and subcortical circuits and have become the subject of intense neuroscience research. One hypothesis about how dopamine supports reinforcement learning is that it adjusts the strength of synaptic connections between neurons. Together, we hypothesize that these value, salience, and alerting signals cooperate to coordinate downstream brain structures and control motivated behavior. The same principle holds for DA responses to sensory cues that provide new information about future rewards. These neurons support brain systems for seeking goals, evaluating outcomes, and value learning. Dopamine neuron reward signals In order to motivate actions that lead to rewards, dopamine should be released during rewarding experiences. Consistent with this hypothesis, dopamine has a potent influence on synaptic plasticity in numerous brain regions Surmeier et al. In some cases dopamine enables synaptic plasticity along the lines of the Hebbian rule described above, in a manner that is correlated with reward-seeking behavior Reynolds et al. Rather than encoding a single homogeneous motivational signal, DA neurons come in multiple types that encode reward and non-reward events in different manners. Dopamine in Reward: However, the pioneering studies of Wolfram Schultz showed that these DA neuron responses are not triggered by reward consumption per se.
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This poses a problem for general theories which seek to identify dopamine with a single neural signal or motivational mechanism. In particular, these studies provide evidence that DA neurons are more diverse than previously thought. In their tonic mode DA neurons maintain a steady, baseline level of DA in downstream neural structures that is vital for enabling the normal functions of neural circuits Schultz,
In addition to its effects on long-term synaptic plasticity, dopamine can also exert immediate control over neural circuits by modulating neural spiking activity and synaptic connections between neurons Surmeier et al. The major sources of DA in the cerebral cortex and in most subcortical areas are the DA-releasing neurons of the ventral midbrain, located in the substantia nigra pars compacta SNc and ventral tegmental area VTA Bjorklund and Dunnett, One hypothesis about how dopamine supports reinforcement learning is that it adjusts the strength of synaptic connections between neurons.
The major sources of DA in the cerebral cortex and in most subcortical areas are the DA-releasing neurons of the ventral midbrain, located in the substantia nigra pars compacta SNc and ventral tegmental area VTA Bjorklund and Dunnett, In the first part of this review we will introduce the conventional theory of phasic DA reward signals and will review recent advances in understanding their nature and their control over neural processing and behavior.